Metabolic syndromes include:

Prevention of metabolic syndromes Igalo Spa

Metabolic syndrome is a set of metabolic disorders that increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Metabolic syndrome has a significant frequency in developed and developing countries. It is estimated that around 20-25% of the world’s adult population has metabolic syndrome. The modern way of life, which implies an abundance of food and physical inactivity, increasingly takes its toll and causes a series of disorders that lead to this complex condition.

The frequency of metabolic syndrome increases with age, so the prevalence in people over 50 years old is 44%, however, in the last twenty years, it is more and more common in children. Complications of this syndrome kill 3.2 million people worldwide each year.

What does Metabolic Syndrome include and how to recognize it?

Metabolic syndrome or insulin resistance includes multiple clinical and pathological laboratory findings. It consists of:

  • Abdominal obesity (in the waist area) with insulin resistance
  • High arterial blood pressure (hypertension)
  • Increased blood fat level (increased triglycerides and decreased HDL cholesterol)

The central disorder is insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is a metabolic condition that occurs when cells in our body become resistant to the action of excess insulin, which results in poor regulation of blood sugar levels and leads to type 2 diabetes.

Factors Leading to Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome:

  1. Genetic predisposition.
  2. Environmental factors (consumption of foods rich in carbohydrates and saturated fats; high availability of food – fast food restaurants…; ignorance of the caloric value of foods, which results in energy-rich meals; increased alcohol consumption).
  3. Reduction of energy consumption as another consequence of the modern way of life (driving a car at the expense of walking or cycling; not enough time for regular physical activities).
  4. Certain diseases such as Cushing’s syndrome, hypothyroidism, insulinoma, polycystic ovaries.
prevencija metabolickog sindroma institut igalo

Diagnosis of metabolic syndrome

The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome is established by the presence of abdominal obesity along with at least two of the following factors: hypertension, low HDL, high triglycerides and disturbed blood glucose values.

A person with metabolic syndrome is recognized by obesity of the central type, where obesity is localized in the waist area, the so-called obesity of the apple type.

Central obesity is defined by waist circumference. The European criterion for waist circumference is more rigorous than the American one. According to the European standard, central obesity is defined by a waist circumference of 80 cm or more for women and 94 cm or more for men.

The following criteria may indicate the presence of metabolic syndrome, so they should be checked more often in obese people:

  • HDL cholesterol level in men: < 0,9mmol/l, in women: < 1,0 mmol/l;
  • Triglyceride level > 1,7 mmol/l;
  • Arterial blood pressure > 130/80mmHg;
  • Glucose values that vary due to the presence of excess insulin. This often results in a drop in blood sugar below normal values – hypoglycemia, and a strong feeling of hunger occurs, food rich in concentrated carbohydrates is consumed, and this again raises the level of insulin while exhausting the pancreas and its insulin-producing beta cells. Over time, this leads to the development of prediabetes when elevated blood glucose levels are registered even on an empty stomach > 5,5 mmol/l.

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Prevention of Metabolic Syndrome

Primary prevention measures include lifestyle changes, ie “the implementation of a healthy lifestyle”. It is advised thereby:

  • Moderate caloric restriction in order to reduce body weight by 5 to 10% in the first year, which has been shown to be more effective than rigorous dietary regimes and “fast weight loss”; Recommended BMI < 25 kg /m2;
  • Moderate increase in physical activity (minimum 30 minutes daily);
  • Changing the way of eating (education about the type of food with a lower glycemic index, meal schedule, more liquids…);
  • Quit smoking.

Secondary prevention measures include the use of drug therapy in the event that lifestyle changes were not sufficient for people with metabolic syndrome.

Metabolic Syndrome Therapy

The therapy of metabolic syndrome is based on the individual treatment of each component of metabolic syndrome with the aim of normalizing them so that they do not lead to the occurrence of comorbidities. The treatment is medicinal along with previous lifestyle changes, reduction of body weight, and must be aggressive and consistent in order to achieve the effect (lowering of triglycerides and LDL cholesterol, raising the level of HDL cholesterol, maintaining normal values of glycemia and arterial pressure).

If the treatment is not adequate, complications of the metabolic syndrome occur – diabetes, atherosclerosis, kidney damage, peripheral vascular diseases, disorders of the locomotor system, which seriously deteriorates health and quality of life.

At the Igalo Institute, an individually dosed program of prevention and treatment of patients with metabolic syndrome is carried out, through an individually prescribed diet, specific caloric content, regular control of body mass (BMI), blood pressure and prescribed laboratory parameters. The physical therapy program and rehabilitation include individually dosed kinesitherapy exercises in the hall and pool, group exercises outdoors, other physical modalities, as well as education on the importance of proper nutrition and physical activity and ways to implement the also at home.