Osteoporosis prevention program Igalo Spa

Osteoporosis is a disease that is manifested by a decrease in the density of bones, which makes them fragile and easily broken. It is present in both sexes, but more often in women over the age of 50.

Bone density, or total bone mass, is formed by the third decade of life, and with aging, bone mass is depleted faster than it is renewed.

What are the Risk Factors for Osteoporosis?

Risk factors for osteoporosis are multiple: from gender and age to heredity – it is more common in families with a history of osteoporosis. The most common cause of osteoporosis in women is the lack of the sex hormone estrogen due to menopause. Lack of testosterone in men also accelerates the development of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis in both sexes is also caused by certain diseases (hyperthyroidism, diseases of the digestive system that interfere with calcium resorption…), long-term use of certain drugs (corticosteroids) as well as bad lifestyle habits (alcohol, tobacco, diet with little calcium and a sedentary lifestyle).

program za prevenciju osteoporoze institut igalo

How to recognize Osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis is considered a “silent” disease, without specific symptoms, until bone fractures occur. Fractures of the hip and spinal vertebrae occur most often. In these cases, 90% of hip fractures occur after trauma i.e. falls, and two-thirds of hip fractures occur with minimal trauma such as lifting a weight, sneezing or bending.

Symptoms of osteoporosis occur due to the progression of the disease. With a fracture of the spinal vertebrae, there is severe pain in the back. Stooping body posture and a decrease in body height also indicate the effects of osteoporosis.

Prevention of Osteoporosis

Prevention of osteoporosis is achieved by consuming sufficient amounts of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K through food or supplements and physical exercise. In risk categories of patients, timely diagnosis is crucial in prevention. Calcium is a mineral that gives bone density and the recommended daily intake is about 1000 mg per day, for women in menopause up to 1200 mg per day through diet or supplements (usually in the form of calcium carbonate or pure calcium citrate). Vitamin D is important for calcium absorption and bone mineralization. Daily intake up to 1000 U, and in the winter months up to 2000 U if there is no vitamin D deficiency, when a higher intake is recommended.

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Diagnosis of Osteoporosis

The most accurate diagnosis of osteoporosis is determined by assessing bone mineral density (BMD) using a standard diagnostic method – osteodensitometry or DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry). Measurements are taken on the hip and lumbar spine, less often on the upper arm. In 1994, the World Health Organization developed a classification system for osteoporosis and osteopenia (lower bone mass) based on data from postmenopausal white women, expressed as T-scores and Z-scores represented by standard deviations (SD) or deviation from the mean relative to young adults.

Normal bone density has a T-score above – 1SD.

Osteopenia is defined by a measured T-score value between -1.0 and -2.5 SD below the maximum bone mass of a standard person.

Osteoporosis is when the T-score value is less than or equal to – 2.5 SD below the maximum bone mass of a standard person.

It is recommended that bone mineral density be monitored approximately every other year depending on the prescribed therapy. It is also recommended that all women over 65, regardless of additional risk factors, undergo osteodensitometry. Those who have some of the risk factors must do it earlier.

Treatment of osteoporosis

Osteoporosis treatment is performed by an expert team of endocrinologists, rheumatologists and physiatrists and includes, in addition to drug therapy as assessed by competent specialists, a proper diet rich in calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and vitamin K along with the necessary physical therapy. Consultation with a nutritionist is recommended for easier selection of the necessary foods rich in the mentioned vitamins and minerals, as well as personal or group education about the disease.

How can our team at the Dr. Simo Milošević Institute help you prevent or treat this disease?

  • Creating an individual program in accordance with your general condition and needs, and after the examination and advice of an internist-endocrinologist and a physiatrist;
  • A physical therapy program that includes customized, individual or group exercises in the hall, swimming pool or outdoors, other physical therapy modalities and education. A very important segment of education is also protective measures, which include preventive actions aimed at reducing the risk of falling (use of adequate aids, importance of sight and hearing examinations, home adaptation – smoothing of carpets and paths, sliding floors, bathtubs…);
  • Through thalassotherapy, bearing in mind the benefits of the climate in which the Institute is located with favorable climatic conditions, a mild Mediterranean climate and a large number of sunny days throughout the year;
  • Through a special diet dominated by a Mediterranean diet with a lot of fish, which was drawn up and monitored by our dietitians;

We are sure that your stay at the Igalo Institute will help you overcome all the challenges that life with osteoporosis brings with it.